Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 12:54:54 PM
Metabolite IDPAMDB000254
Name: Protoporphyrinogen IX
Description:Protoporphyrinogen IX is an intermediate in heme biosynthesis. It is a porphyrinogen in which 2 pyrrole rings each have one methyl and one propionate side chain and the other two pyrrole rings each have one methyl and one vinyl side chain. 15 isomers are possible but only one, type IX, occurs naturally. Protoporphyrinogen is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen.
  • 5,10,15,20,22,24-Hexahydro protoporphyrin IX deriv.
  • 7,12-Diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-5,10,15,20,22,24-hexahydroporphyrin-2,18-dipropanoate
  • 7,12-Diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-5,10,15,20,22,24-hexahydroporphyrin-2,18-dipropanoic acid
  • 7,12-Diethenyl-5,10,15,20,22,24-hexahydro-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21h,23h-porphine-2,18-dipropanoate
  • 7,12-Diethenyl-5,10,15,20,22,24-hexahydro-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21h,23h-porphine-2,18-dipropanoic acid
  • Protoporphyrinogen
  • Protoporphyrinogen IX
  • Protoporphyrinogen-IX
Chemical Formula: C34H40N4O4
Average Molecular Weight: 568.7058
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 568.304955788
CAS number: 7412-77-3
IUPAC Name:3-[20-(2-carboxyethyl)-10,15-diethenyl-5,9,14,19-tetramethyl-21,22,23,24-tetraazapentacyclo[,??1????.1??,???tetracosa-1(20),3,5,8,10,13,15,18-octaen-4-yl]propanoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name: protoporphyrinogen
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as porphyrins. These are compounds containing a fundamental skeleton of four pyrrole nuclei united through the alpha-positions by four methine groups to form a macrocyclic structure.
Kingdom Organic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Class Tetrapyrroles and derivatives
Sub ClassPorphyrins
Direct Parent Porphyrins
Alternative Parents
  • Porphyrin
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrrole
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular Framework Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Solid
Melting point: Not Available
Experimental Properties:
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.00551 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.07ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area137.76 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity169.42 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability64.5 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Membrane
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0000190000-7c4ce83e3be73bfccdf6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0pi0-0000490000-affa2d20d85ce7a5a2a1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03dj-0020900000-a1714c4d96457c66da57View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0000090000-4148fa37b5b91e3b5a92View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-05tb-1000090000-27a9f5ba745bc29e2b22View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000260000-392765703d0911aa98fcView in MoNA
  • Bloomer JR: Enzyme defects in the porphyrias and their relevance to the biochemical abnormalities in these disorders. J Invest Dermatol. 1981 Jul;77(1):102-6. Pubmed: 7252240
  • Corrigall AV, Hift RJ, Adams PA, Kirsch RE: Inhibition of mammalian protoporphyrinogen oxidase by acifluorfen. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1994 Dec;34(6):1283-9. Pubmed: 7697001
  • Cox TM, Jack N, Lofthouse S, Watling J, Haines J, Warren MJ: King George III and porphyria: an elemental hypothesis and investigation. Lancet. 2005 Jul 23-29;366(9482):332-5. Pubmed: 16039338
  • de Villiers JN, Kotze MJ, van Heerden CJ, Sadie A, Gardner HF, Liebenberg J, van Zyl R, du Plessis L, Kimberg M, Frank J, Warnich L: Overrepresentation of the founder PPOX gene mutation R59W in a South African patient with severe clinical manifestation of porphyria. Exp Dermatol. 2005 Jan;14(1):50-5. Pubmed: 15660919
  • Herrick AL, Moore MR, Thompson GG, Ford GP, McColl KE: Cholelithiasis in patients with variegate porphyria. J Hepatol. 1991 Jan;12(1):50-3. Pubmed: 2007776
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Krijt J, Stranska P, Maruna P, Vokurka M, Sanitrak J: Herbicide-induced experimental variegate porphyria in mice: tissue porphyrinogen accumulation and response to porphyrogenic drugs. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997 Oct-Nov;75(10-11):1181-7. Pubmed: 9431441
  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • Wan J, Zhang L, Yang G, Zhan CG: Quantitative structure-activity relationship for cyclic imide derivatives of protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors: a study of quantum chemical descriptors from density functional theory. J Chem Inf Comput Sci. 2004 Nov-Dec;44(6):2099-105. Pubmed: 15554680
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
Synthesis Reference: Not Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Not Available
External Links:
Pubchem Compound ID121893
Kegg IDC01079
ChemSpider ID108741
WikipediaProtoporphyrinogen IX


General function:
Involved in coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity
Specific function:
Anaerobic transformation of coproporphyrinogen-III into protoporphyrinogen-IX
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
52.5 kDa
Coproporphyrinogen-III + 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine = protoporphyrinogen-IX + 2 CO(2) + 2 L-methionine + 2 5'-deoxyadenosine.
General function:
Involved in coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in heme biosynthesis. Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of propionic acid side chains of rings A and B of coproporphyrinogen III
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
34.8 kDa
Coproporphyrinogen-III + O(2) + 2 H(+) = protoporphyrinogen-IX + 2 CO(2) + 2 H(2)O.
General function:
Involved in coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
42.5 kDa