Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 12:54:54 PM
Metabolite IDPAMDB000166
Name: Copper
Description:Copper is s a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. The catalytic activity of copper is used by the enzymes that it is associated with and is thus only toxic when unsequestered and unmediated. Copper(II) ions are water-soluble, where they function at low concentration as bacteriostatic substances, fungicides, and wood preservatives.
  • Ci(II)
  • Copper
  • Cu
  • Cu++
  • Cu+2
  • Cu++
  • Cu+2
  • Cupric copper
  • Cupric ion
Chemical Formula: Cu
Average Molecular Weight: 63.546
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 62.929601079
CAS number: 7440-50-8
IUPAC Name:copper(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Name: copper(2+) ion
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
Kingdom Inorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
Class Homogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct Parent Homogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative Parents Not Available
  • Homogeneous transition metal
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular Framework Acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Solid
Melting point: 1083 °C
Experimental Properties:
Predicted Properties
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Cytoplasm
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
  • Aoki T: [Genetic disorders of copper transport--diagnosis and new treatment for the patients of Wilson's disease] No To Hattatsu. 2005 Mar;37(2):99-109. Pubmed: 15773321
  • Attri S, Sharma N, Jahagirdar S, Thapa BR, Prasad R: Erythrocyte metabolism and antioxidant status of patients with Wilson disease with hemolytic anemia. Pediatr Res. 2006 Apr;59(4 Pt 1):593-7. Pubmed: 16549536
  • Briviba K, Schnabele K, Rechkemmer G, Bub A: Supplementation of a diet low in carotenoids with tomato or carrot juice does not affect lipid peroxidation in plasma and feces of healthy men. J Nutr. 2004 May;134(5):1081-3. Pubmed: 15113949
  • Cengiz B, Soylemez F, Ozturk E, Cavdar AO: Serum zinc, selenium, copper, and lead levels in women with second-trimester induced abortion resulting from neural tube defects: a preliminary study. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004 Mar;97(3):225-35. Pubmed: 14997023
  • Chen D, Cui QC, Yang H, Dou QP: Disulfiram, a clinically used anti-alcoholism drug and copper-binding agent, induces apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cultures and xenografts via inhibition of the proteasome activity. Cancer Res. 2006 Nov 1;66(21):10425-33. Pubmed: 17079463
  • Daniel KG, Harbach RH, Guida WC, Dou QP: Copper storage diseases: Menkes, Wilsons, and cancer. Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 1;9:2652-62. Pubmed: 15358588
  • Dib N, Valsesia E, Malinge MC, Mauras Y, Misrahi M, Cales P: Late onset of Wilson's disease in a family with genetic haemochromatosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Jan;18(1):43-7. Pubmed: 16357618
  • Gorter RW, Butorac M, Cobian EP: Examination of the cutaneous absorption of copper after the use of copper-containing ointments. Am J Ther. 2004 Nov-Dec;11(6):453-8. Pubmed: 15543084
  • Hoogenraad TU: Paradigm shift in treatment of Wilson's disease: zinc therapy now treatment of choice. Brain Dev. 2006 Apr;28(3):141-6. Epub 2006 Feb 7. Pubmed: 16466879
  • Jablonska-Kaszewska I, Dabrowska E, Drobinska Jurowiecka A, Falkiewicz B: Treatment of Wilson's disease. Med Sci Monit. 2003 Aug;9 Suppl 3:5-8. Pubmed: 15156602
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Kedzierska E: [Concentrations of selected bioelements and toxic metals and their influence on health status of children and youth residing in Szczecin] Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2003;49:131-43. Pubmed: 15552844
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Kitzberger R, Madl C, Ferenci P: Wilson disease. Metab Brain Dis. 2005 Dec;20(4):295-302. Pubmed: 16382340
  • Kodama H, Sato E, Gu YH, Shiga K, Fujisawa C, Kozuma T: Effect of copper and diethyldithiocarbamate combination therapy on the macular mouse, an animal model of Menkes disease. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(6):971-8. Pubmed: 16435190
  • Koury JC, de Olilveria AV Jr, Portella ES, de Olilveria CF, Lopes GC, Donangelo CM: Zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status in elite athletes of different modalities. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004 Jun;14(3):358-72. Pubmed: 15256695
  • Langner C, Denk H: Wilson disease. Virchows Arch. 2004 Aug;445(2):111-8. Epub 2004 Jun 17. Pubmed: 15205951
  • Meng Y, Miyoshi I, Hirabayashi M, Su M, Mototani Y, Okamura T, Terada K, Ueda M, Enomoto K, Sugiyama T, Kasai N: Restoration of copper metabolism and rescue of hepatic abnormalities in LEC rats, an animal model of Wilson disease, by expression of human ATP7B gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 Nov 5;1690(3):208-19. Pubmed: 15511628
  • Odland JO, Nieboer E, Romanova N, Thomassen Y: Elements in placenta and pregnancy outcome in arctic and subarctic areas. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2004 May;63(2):169-87. Pubmed: 15253483
  • Pizent A, Jurasovic J, Telisman S: Serum calcium, zinc, and copper in relation to biomarkers of lead and cadmium in men. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2003;17(3):199-205. Pubmed: 14968933
  • Squitti R, Barbati G, Rossi L, Ventriglia M, Dal Forno G, Cesaretti S, Moffa F, Caridi I, Cassetta E, Pasqualetti P, Calabrese L, Lupoi D, Rossini PM: Excess of nonceruloplasmin serum copper in AD correlates with MMSE, CSF [beta]-amyloid, and h-tau. Neurology. 2006 Jul 11;67(1):76-82. Pubmed: 16832081
  • Venelinov TI, Davies IM, Beattie JH: Dialysis-Chelex method for determination of exchangeable copper in human plasma. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2004 Jul;379(5-6):777-80. Epub 2004 Feb 26. Pubmed: 14991216
Synthesis Reference: Not Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
External Links:
Pubchem Compound ID23978
Kegg IDC00070
ChemSpider ID25221
BioCyc IDCU+2
EcoCyc IDCU+2
Ligand ExpoCU


General function:
Involved in oxidation-reduction process
Specific function:
Transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone. Does not couple the redox reaction to proton translocation
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
47.4 kDa
NADH + acceptor = NAD(+) + reduced acceptor.
General function:
Involved in Mo-molybdopterin cofactor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Involved in sulfur transfer in the conversion of molybdopterin precursor Z to molybdopterin
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
9.2 kDa
General function:
Involved in Mo-molybdopterin cofactor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Converts molybdopterin precursor Z to molybdopterin. This requires the incorporation of two sulfur atoms into precursor Z to generate a dithiolene group. The sulfur is provided by moaD
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
16.7 kDa
Cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate + 2 [molybdopterin-synthase sulfur-carrier protein]-Gly-NH-CH(2)-C(O)SH + H(2)O = molybdopterin + 2 [molybdopterin-synthase sulfur-carrier protein].