Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 12:54:54 PM
Metabolite IDPAMDB000233
Name: D-Glyceraldehyde
Description:Glyceraldehyde is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3. It is the simplest of all common aldoses. It is a sweet colorless crystalline solid that is an intermediate compound in carbohydrate metabolism. The word comes from combining glycerine and aldehyde, as glyceraldehyde is merely glycerine with one hydroxide changed to an aldehyde.
  • α,β-dihydroxypropionaldehyde
  • (+/-)-2,3-dihydroxy-Propanal
  • (+/-)-Glyceraldehyde
  • 2, 3-Dihydroxy-Propanal
  • 2,3-Dihydroxy-Propionaldehyde
  • 2,3-Dihydroxypropanal
  • 2,3-Dihydroxypropionaldehyde
  • A,b-Dihydroxypropionaldehyde
  • Alpha,beta-Dihydroxypropionaldehyde
  • D-(+)-Glyceraldehyde
  • D-2,3-Dihydroxypropanal
  • D-2,3-Dihydroxypropionaldehyde
  • D-Aldotriose
  • D-Glycerose
  • Delta-(+)-Glyceraldehyde
  • Delta-2,3-dihydroxypropanal
  • Delta-2,3-dihydroxypropionaldehyde
  • Delta-aldotriose
  • Delta-Glyceraldehyde
  • Delta-glycerose
  • Dihydroxypropionaldehyde
  • DL-Glyceraldehyde
  • DL-Glyceric aldehyde
  • DLG
  • Glyceraldehyde
  • Glyceric aldehyde
  • Glycerinaldehyde
  • Glycerinformal
  • Glycerose
  • α,β-Dihydroxypropionaldehyde
  • δ-(+)-Glyceraldehyde
  • δ-2,3-Dihydroxypropanal
  • δ-2,3-Dihydroxypropionaldehyde
  • δ-Aldotriose
  • δ-Glyceraldehyde
  • δ-Glycerose
Chemical Formula: C3H6O3
Average Molecular Weight: 90.0779
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 90.031694058
CAS number: 56-82-6
IUPAC Name:2,3-dihydroxypropanal
Traditional IUPAC Name: (+/-)-glyceraldehyde
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as monosaccharides. These are compounds containing one carbohydrate unit not glycosidically linked to another such unit, and no set of two or more glycosidically linked carbohydrate units. Monosaccharides have the general formula CnH2nOn.
Kingdom Organic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Class Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Sub ClassMonosaccharides
Direct Parent Monosaccharides
Alternative Parents
  • Monosaccharide
  • Alpha-hydroxyaldehyde
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-diol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Short-chain aldehyde
  • Primary alcohol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aldehyde
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Solid
Melting point: 145 °C
Experimental Properties:
Water Solubility:29.2 mg/mlPhysProp
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility814.0 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity19.46 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.07 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Cytoplasm
Pathways: Not Available
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0udj-1900000000-66c3a7fb073f6c5c86a0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0udi-1900000000-3fd8dc5205f5abb770caView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-9000000000-25cf3a1adcc93448a673View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-c5b3efaddb77bd3470a0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01ox-9000000000-ff6b63535e8104e1a60fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
  • Beard KM, Shangari N, Wu B, O'Brien PJ: Metabolism, not autoxidation, plays a role in alpha-oxoaldehyde- and reducing sugar-induced erythrocyte GSH depletion: relevance for diabetes mellitus. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Oct;252(1-2):331-8. Pubmed: 14577607
  • Choei H, Sasaki N, Takeuchi M, Yoshida T, Ukai W, Yamagishi S, Kikuchi S, Saito T: Glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end products in Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 2004 Sep;108(3):189-93. Epub 2004 Jun 17. Pubmed: 15221334
  • Fujita T, Funako T, Hayashi H: 8-Hydroxydaidzein, an aldose reductase inhibitor from okara fermented with Aspergillus sp. HK-388. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2004 Jul;68(7):1588-90. Pubmed: 15277768
  • Gugliucci A: A practical method to study functional impairment of proteins by glycation and effects of inhibitors using current coagulation/fibrinolysis reagent kits. Clin Biochem. 2003 Mar;36(2):155-8. Pubmed: 12633766
  • Haraguchi H, Hayashi R, Ishizu T, Yagi A: A flavone from Manilkara indica as a specific inhibitor against aldose reductase in vitro. Planta Med. 2003 Sep;69(9):853-5. Pubmed: 14598214
  • Iwata H, Ukeda H, Maruyama T, Fujino T, Sawamura M: Effect of carbonyl compounds on red blood cells deformability. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Aug 27;321(3):700-6. Pubmed: 15358163
  • Jonas AJ, Lin SN, Conley SB, Schneider JA, Williams JC, Caprioli RC: Urine glyceraldehyde excretion is elevated in the renal Fanconi syndrome. Kidney Int. 1989 Jan;35(1):99-104. Pubmed: 2709665
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Nagaraj RH, Oya-Ito T, Padayatti PS, Kumar R, Mehta S, West K, Levison B, Sun J, Crabb JW, Padival AK: Enhancement of chaperone function of alpha-crystallin by methylglyoxal modification. Biochemistry. 2003 Sep 16;42(36):10746-55. Pubmed: 12962499
  • Phillipou G, Seaborn CJ, Phillips PJ: Re-evaluation of the fructosamine reaction. Clin Chem. 1988 Aug;34(8):1561-4. Pubmed: 3402055
  • Takeuchi M, Yamagishi S: Alternative routes for the formation of glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (TAGE) in vivo. Med Hypotheses. 2004;63(3):453-5. Pubmed: 15288367
  • Yamagishi S, Nakamura K, Inoue H, Kikuchi S, Takeuchi M: Serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may be a promising biomarker for early detection of Alzheimer's disease. Med Hypotheses. 2005;64(6):1205-7. Pubmed: 15823718
  • Zakrzewska I, Prokopowicz J, Worowski K, Skrzydlewska E, Puchalski Z, Piotrowski Z: Low molecular organic inactivators in differentiating organ origin of alpha-amylase in humans. Part I. Mater Med Pol. 1989 Oct-Dec;21(4):274-6. Pubmed: 2518736
Synthesis Reference: Wan, Xin-Jun; Song, Ming-You; Wu, Rong; Chu, Dao-Bao. Synthesis of glyceraldehyde by indirect electrooxidation. Yingyong Huaxue (2003), 20(6), 578-581.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
External Links:
Pubchem Compound ID751
Kegg IDC00577
ChemSpider ID731


General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Has high formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the presence of glutathione and catalyzes the oxidation of normal alcohols in a reaction that is not GSH-dependent. In addition, hemithiolacetals other than those formed from GSH, including omega-thiol fatty acids, also are substrates
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
39.2 kDa
S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione + NAD(P)(+) = S-formylglutathione + NAD(P)H.
An alcohol + NAD(+) = an aldehyde or ketone + NADH.


General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Transporter of glycerol across the cytoplasmic membrane, with limited permeability to water and small uncharged compounds such as polyols
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
28.9 kDa