Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 12:54:54 PM
Metabolite IDPAMDB000149
Name: Magnesium
Description:Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal. Due to the important interaction between phosphate and magnesium ions, magnesium ions are essential to the basic nucleic acid chemistry of life, and thus are essential to all cells of all known living organisms. Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium ions for their catalytic action, including all enzymes utilizing or synthesizing ATP, or those which use other nucleotides to synthesize DNA and RNA. ATP exists in cells normally as a chelate of ATP and a magnesium ion. (Wikipedia)
  • Magnesium
  • Magnesium ion
  • Magnesium ions
  • MG++
  • MG+2
  • Mg++
  • Mg+2
Chemical Formula: Mg
Average Molecular Weight: 24.305
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 23.985041898
CAS number: 7439-95-4
IUPAC Name:magnesium(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Name: magnesium(2+) ion
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkaline earth metal atom.
Kingdom Inorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
Class Homogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct Parent Homogeneous alkaline earth metal compounds
Alternative Parents Not Available
  • Homogeneous alkaline earth metal
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular Framework Acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Solid
Melting point: 651 °C
Experimental Properties:
Predicted Properties
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Cytoplasm
  • Abbasciano V, Sartori S, Trevisani L, Girometti R, Ranzini M, Nielsen I, Mazzotta D, Vecchiatti G, Bononi A, Guglielmini C: Comparison of magnesium concentration in serum, erythrocytes and gastric tissue in two groups of patients affected by chronic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori negative and positive. Magnes Res. 2003 Dec;16(4):281-6. Pubmed: 14979638
  • Bologa C, Rusu M, Ianovici N, Tetraru C, Hurjui J, Petris O, Lionte C: [Role of calcium and magnesium ions in cerebrospinal fluid in alcoholic-traumatic coma] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2003 Oct-Dec;107(4):809-12. Pubmed: 14756024
  • Bryant RE, Crouse R, Deagen JT: Zinc, iron, copper, selenium, lactoferrin, and ferritin in human pus. Am J Med Sci. 2004 Feb;327(2):73-6. Pubmed: 14770022
  • Fowler AJ, Moskowitz DG, Wong A, Cohen SP, Williams ML, Heyman MB: Nutritional status and gastrointestinal structure and function in children with ichthyosis and growth failure. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2004 Feb;38(2):164-9. Pubmed: 14734878
  • Gortzak-Uzan L, Mezad D, Smolin A, Friger M, Huleihel M, Hallak M: Increasing amniotic fluid magnesium concentrations with stable maternal serum levels: a prospective clinical trial. J Reprod Med. 2005 Nov;50(11):817-20. Pubmed: 16419627
  • Guo H, Cheng J, Lee JD, Ueda T, Shan J, Wang J: Relationship between the degree of intracellular magnesium deficiency and the frequency of chest pain in women with variant angina. Herz. 2004 May;29(3):299-303. Pubmed: 15167956
  • Guo H, Lee JD, Guo M, Lu Y, Tang F, Ueda T: Status of intracellular and extracellular magnesium concentration in patients with cardiac syndrome X. Acta Cardiol. 2005 Jun;60(3):259-63. Pubmed: 15999464
  • Hurwitz, C., Rosano, C. L. (1967). "The intracellular concentration of bound and unbound magnesium ions in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 242:3719-3722. Pubmed: 5341484
  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Kedzierska E: [Concentrations of selected bioelements and toxic metals and their influence on health status of children and youth residing in Szczecin] Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2003;49:131-43. Pubmed: 15552844
  • Keseler, I. M., Collado-Vides, J., Santos-Zavaleta, A., Peralta-Gil, M., Gama-Castro, S., Muniz-Rascado, L., Bonavides-Martinez, C., Paley, S., Krummenacker, M., Altman, T., Kaipa, P., Spaulding, A., Pacheco, J., Latendresse, M., Fulcher, C., Sarker, M., Shearer, A. G., Mackie, A., Paulsen, I., Gunsalus, R. P., Karp, P. D. (2011). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database of Escherichia coli biology." Nucleic Acids Res 39:D583-D590. Pubmed: 21097882
  • Kielczykowska M, Pasternak K, Musik I: The influence of lithium on calcium and magnesium homeostasis in serum and tissues of rats. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med]. 2003;58(2):281-4. Pubmed: 15323205
  • Korycinska A, Dabrowski W, Rzecki Z, Dragan M, Pozarowski P, Wronska J, Stazka J, Pasternak K, Rolinski J: The degree of lymphocytic mitochondrial transmembrane potential and blood magnesium concentrations during coronary artery bypass grafting. Magnes Res. 2005 Dec;18(4):253-60. Pubmed: 16548140
  • Mendez DR, Corbett R, Macias C, Laptook A: Total and ionized plasma magnesium concentrations in children after traumatic brain injury. Pediatr Res. 2005 Mar;57(3):347-52. Epub 2004 Dec 7. Pubmed: 15585675
  • Miyamoto Y, Yamamoto H, Murakami H, Kamiyama N, Fukuda M: Studies on cerebrospinal fluid ionized calcium and magnesium concentrations in convulsive children. Pediatr Int. 2004 Aug;46(4):394-7. Pubmed: 15310301
  • Nielsen FH, Milne DB: A moderately high intake compared to a low intake of zinc depresses magnesium balance and alters indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;58(5):703-10. Pubmed: 15116072
  • Postnikova LB, Alekseeva OP, Kubysheva NI, Gorshkova TN, Ishanova OS: [Significance of biochemical parameters of saliva in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at exacerbation] Klin Lab Diagn. 2004 Oct;(10):16-8. Pubmed: 15584394
  • Rakicioglu N, Samur G, Topcu A, Topcu AA: The effect of Ramadan on maternal nutrition and composition of breast milk. Pediatr Int. 2006 Jun;48(3):278-83. Pubmed: 16732795
  • Resnick LM, Barbagallo M, Bardicef M, Bardicef O, Sorokin Y, Evelhoch J, Dominguez LJ, Mason BA, Cotton DB: Cellular-free magnesium depletion in brain and muscle of normal and preeclamptic pregnancy: a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study. Hypertension. 2004 Sep;44(3):322-6. Epub 2004 Jul 19. Pubmed: 15262910
  • Simsek E, Karabay M, Kocabay K: Assessment of magnesium status in newly diagnosed diabetic children: measurement of erythrocyte magnesium level and magnesium tolerance testing. Turk J Pediatr. 2005 Apr-Jun;47(2):132-7. Pubmed: 16052852
  • Siqueira WL, de Oliveira E, Mustacchi Z, Nicolau J: Electrolyte concentrations in saliva of children aged 6-10 years with Down syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2004 Jul;98(1):76-9. Pubmed: 15243474
  • Wang FJ, Cao J, Ma LP, Jin ZX: [Study on cellular and serum concentration of calcium and magnesium in peripheral blood cells of cirrhosis] Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2004 Mar;12(3):144-7. Pubmed: 15059297
  • Wang W, Kumar P, Minhas S, Ralph D: Proposals or findings for a new approach about how to define and diagnose premature ejaculation. Eur Urol. 2005 Sep;48(3):418-23. Pubmed: 15967566
Synthesis Reference: Not Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
External Links:
Pubchem Compound ID888
Kegg IDC00305
ChemSpider ID865
BioCyc IDMG+2
EcoCyc IDMG+2
Ligand ExpoMG


General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on acid anhydrides, catalyzing transmembrane movement of substances
Specific function:
Mediates magnesium influx to the cytosol
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
100.1 kDa
ATP + H(2)O + Mg(2+)(Out) = ADP + phosphate + Mg(2+)(In).