Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 12:54:54 PM
Metabolite IDPAMDB000050
Name: Glycerol
Description:Glycerol is an organic compound, also called glycerin or glycerine. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerol has three hydrophilic hydroxyl groups that are responsible for its solubility in water and its hygroscopic nature. Metabolism of glycerol in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, generally requires the presence of external electron acceptors. The respiratory pathways mediating this metabolic process involve a glycerol transporter (encoded by glpF), a glycerol kinase (encoded by glpK), and two respiratory glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (G3PDHs). Glycerol may also be metabolized fermentatively leading to the production of ethanol.
  • 1,2,3-Trihydroxypropane
  • 1,2,3-Trihydroxypropanol
  • Bulbold
  • Cristal
  • E 422
  • Emery 916
  • Glyceol Opthalgan
  • Glycerin
  • Glycerine
  • Glyceritol
  • Glycerol
  • Glycyl alcohol
  • Glyrol
  • Glysanin
  • IFP
  • Incorporation factor
  • Mackstat H 66
  • Osmoglyn
  • Pricerine 9091
  • Propanetriol
  • RG-S
  • Trihydroxypropane
  • Tryhydroxypropane
Chemical Formula: C3H8O3
Average Molecular Weight: 92.0938
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 92.047344122
CAS number: 56-81-5
IUPAC Name:propane-1,2,3-triol
Traditional IUPAC Name: glycerol
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar alcohols. These are hydrogenated forms of carbohydrate in which the carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone, reducing sugar) has been reduced to a primary or secondary hydroxyl group.
Kingdom Organic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Class Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Sub ClassSugar alcohols
Direct Parent Sugar alcohols
Alternative Parents
  • Sugar alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • 1,2-diol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular Framework Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Liquid
Melting point: 20
Experimental Properties:
Water Solubility:1000.0 mg/mL [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)]PhysProp
LogP:-1.76 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1170.0 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area60.69 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity20.52 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Cytoplasm
Glycerol + NAD > Dihydroxyacetone + NADH
PS(14:0/18:1(11Z)) > Glycerol + a cardiolipin
PG(18:0/18:0) + PG(18:0/18:0) > Glycerol + CL(16:0/16:0/16:0/16:1(9Z))
PG(18:2(9Z,12Z)/18:2(9Z,12Z)) > CL(18:2(9Z,12Z)/18:2(9Z,12Z)/18:2(9Z,12Z)/18:2(9Z,12Z)) + Glycerol
2 PG(18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z))
PG(14:0(3-OH)/15:0) > Glycerol + CL(15:0cyclo/15:0cyclo/14:0/16:0)
PG(14:0/14:0) > Glycerol + cardiolipin (tetratetradecanoyl, n-C14:0)
PG(14:0/16:0) > CL(14:0/16:0/14:0/16:0) + Glycerol
2 PG(16:1(9Z)/16:1(9Z)) > Glycerol + cardiolipin (tetrahexadec-9-enoyl, n-C16:1)
PG(19:0cycv8c/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(19:0cycv8c/19:0cycv8c/19:0cycv8c/19:0cycv8c)
PG(15:0/16:1) > Glycerol + CL(15:0cyclo/15:0cyclo/15:0cyclo/15:0cyclo)
2 PG(10:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(19:0cycv8c/14:0/14:0/17:0cycw7c)
2 PG(10:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(19:0cycv8c/14:0/17:0cycw7c/14:0)
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(19:0cycv8c/14:0/14:0/19:0cycv8c)
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > CL(19:0cycv8c/14:0/19:0cycv8c/14:0) + Glycerol
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(19:0cycv8c/15:0cyclo/15:0cyclo/17:0cycw7c)
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(19:0cycv8c/15:0cyclo/17:0cycw7c/15:0cyclo)
2 PG(10:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(19:0cycv8c/17:0cycw7c/14:0/14:0)
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(19:0cycv8c/19:0cycv8c/14:0/14:0)
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(17:0cycw7c/18:1(9Z)/17:0cycw7c/14:0)
2 PG(10:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(17:0cycw7c/19:0cycv8c/14:0/14:0)
2 PG(10:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/14:0/14:0/18:1(9Z))
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/14:0/17:0cycw7c/17:0cycw7c)
2 PG(10:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/14:0/18:1(9Z)/14:0)
2 PG(14:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/15:0cyclo/14:0/15:0cyclo)
2 PG(14:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/15:0cyclo/15:0cyclo/14:0)
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/15:0cyclo/18:1(9Z)/15:0cyclo)
2 PG(14:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/16:0/14:0/14:0)
2 PG(10:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/16:0/14:0/16:0)
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/16:0/14:0/18:1(9Z))
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/16:0/18:1(9Z)/14:0)
2 PG(14:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/16:1(9Z)/14:0/14:0)
2 PG(10:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/16:1(9Z)/14:0/16:1(9Z))
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/16:1(9Z)/14:0/18:1(9Z))
2 PG(10:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/16:1(9Z)/16:1(9Z)/14:0)
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/16:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/14:0)
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/17:0cycw7c/14:0/17:0cycw7c)
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/17:0cycw7c/17:0cycw7c/14:0)
2 PG(10:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/14:0/14:0)
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/14:0/16:0)
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/14:0/16:1(9Z))
2 PG(10:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(17:0cycw7c/16:1(9Z)/14:0/17:0cycw7c)
2 PG(10:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(17:0cycw7c/16:1(9Z)/17:0cycw7c/14:0)
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(17:0cycw7c/16:1(9Z)/17:0cycw7c/16:1(9Z))
2 PG(10:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(17:0cycw7c/17:0cycw7c/14:0/16:0)
2 PG(10:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(17:0cycw7c/17:0cycw7c/14:0/16:1(9Z))
2 PG(16:0/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(17:0cycw7c/18:1(9Z)/14:0/17:0cycw7c)
2 PG(16:1(9Z)/12:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/15:0cyclo/14:0/15:0cyclo)
2 PG(14:0(3-OH)/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/15:0cyclo/14:0/15:0cyclo)
2 PG(18:1(9Z)/16:0) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/16:0/18:1(9Z)/16:0)
2 PG(18:1(9Z)/16:1(9Z)) > Glycerol + CL(18:1(9Z)/16:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)/16:1(9Z))
Glycerol + Adenosine triphosphate > Hydrogen ion + Adenosine diphosphate + Glycerol 3-phosphate + ADP
2 PG(10:0(3-OH)/10:0) > Glycerol + CL(10:0(3-OH)/10:0/10:0(3-OH)/10:0)
2 PG(10:0(3-OH)/12:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(10:0(3-OH)/12:0(3-OH)/10:0(3-OH)/12:0(3-OH))
2 PG(10:0(3-OH)/12:0) > Glycerol + CL(10:0(3-OH)/12:0/10:0(3-OH)/12:0)
2 PG(10:0(3-OH)/15:0cyclo) > CL(10:0(3-OH)/15:0cyclo/10:0(3-OH)/15:0cyclo) + Glycerol
2 PG(10:0(3-OH)/16:0) > CL(10:0(3-OH)/16:0/10:0(3-OH)/16:0) + Glycerol
2 PG(10:0(3-OH)/16:1(9Z)) > Glycerol + CL(10:0(3-OH)/16:1(9Z)/10:0(3-OH)/16:1(9Z))
2 PG(10:0(3-OH)/17:0cycw7c) > Glycerol + CL(10:0(3-OH)/17:0cycw7c/10:0(3-OH)/17:0cycw7c)
2 PG(10:0(3-OH)/19:0cycv8c) > Glycerol + CL(10:0(3-OH)/19:0cycv8c/10:0(3-OH)/19:0cycv8c)
2 PG(10:0(3-OH)/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(10:0(3-OH)/19:iso/10:0(3-OH)/19:iso)
2 PG(10:0/10:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(10:0/10:0(3-OH)/10:0/10:0(3-OH))
2 PG(10:0/12:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(10:0/12:0(3-OH)/10:0/12:0(3-OH))
2 PG(12:0(3-OH)/10:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(12:0(3-OH)/10:0(3-OH)/12:0(3-OH)/10:0(3-OH))
2 PG(12:0(3-OH)/10:0) > Glycerol + CL(12:0(3-OH)/10:0/12:0(3-OH)/10:0)
2 PG(12:0(3-OH)/14:0(3-OH)) > CL(12:0(3-OH)/14:0(3-OH)/12:0(3-OH)/14:0(3-OH)) + Glycerol
2 PG(12:0(3-OH)/14:0) > Glycerol + CL(12:0(3-OH)/14:0/12:0(3-OH)/14:0)
2 PG(12:0(3-OH)/15:0) > CL(12:0(3-OH)/15:0/12:0(3-OH)/15:0) + Glycerol
2 PG(12:0(3-OH)/15:0cyclo) > Glycerol + CL(12:0(3-OH)/15:0cyclo/12:0(3-OH)/15:0cyclo)
2 PG(12:0(3-OH)/17:0cycw7c) > Glycerol + CL(12:0(3-OH)/17:0cycw7c/12:0(3-OH)/17:0cycw7c)
2 PG(12:0(3-OH)/18:1(9Z)) > Glycerol + CL(12:0(3-OH)/18:1(9Z)/12:0(3-OH)/18:1(9Z))
2 PG(12:0(3-OH)/19:0cycv8c) > Glycerol + CL(12:0(3-OH)/19:0cycv8c/12:0(3-OH)/19:0cycv8c)
2 PG(12:0(3-OH)/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(12:0(3-OH)/19:iso/12:0(3-OH)/19:iso)
2 PG(12:0/10:0(3-OH)) > CL(12:0/10:0(3-OH)/12:0/10:0(3-OH)) + Glycerol
2 PG(12:0/12:0) > Glycerol + cardiolipin (tetradodecanoyl, n-C12:0)
2 PG(12:0/14:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(12:0/14:0(3-OH)/12:0/14:0(3-OH))
2 PG(12:0/19:iso) > Glycerol + CL(12:0/19:iso/12:0/19:iso)
2 PG(14:0(3-OH)/12:0(3-OH)) > CL(14:0(3-OH)/12:0(3-OH)/14:0(3-OH)/12:0(3-OH)) + Glycerol
2 PG(14:0(3-OH)/12:0) > Glycerol + CL(14:0(3-OH)/12:0/14:0(3-OH)/12:0)
2 PG(14:0(3-OH)/16:1(9Z)) > Glycerol + CL(14:0(3-OH)/16:1(9Z)/14:0(3-OH)/16:1(9Z))
2 PG(14:0(3-OH)/17:0cycw7c) > Glycerol + CL(14:0(3-OH)/17:0cycw7c/14:0(3-OH)/17:0cycw7c)
2 PG(14:0/12:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(14:0/12:0(3-OH)/14:0/12:0(3-OH))
2 PG(15:0/10:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(15:0/10:0(3-OH)/15:0/10:0(3-OH))
2 PG(15:0/12:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(15:0/12:0(3-OH)/15:0/12:0(3-OH))
2 PG(15:0cyclo/10:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(15:0cyclo/10:0(3-OH)/15:0cyclo/10:0(3-OH))
2 PG(16:0/10:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(16:0/10:0(3-OH)/16:0/10:0(3-OH))
2 PG(16:0/14:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(16:0/14:0(3-OH)/16:0/14:0(3-OH))
2 PG(16:1(9Z)/14:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(16:1(9Z)/14:0(3-OH)/16:1(9Z)/14:0(3-OH))
2 PG(17:0cycw7c/10:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(17:0cycw7c/10:0(3-OH)/17:0cycw7c/10:0(3-OH))
2 PG(17:0cycw7c/12:0(3-OH)) > Glycerol + CL(17:0cycw7c/12:0(3-OH)/17:0cycw7c/12:0(3-OH))

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0fr2-0910000000-6497c0870b71585c6322View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0ktb-0920000000-93408d69acffad6f48afView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-05mk-0940000000-778ba583836705f8fdf4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-00kb-0920000000-2e4b358941c660851f0aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00dj-6920000000-6828d7b00cb31e84fac1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0le9-0940000000-e0b9bada9be26d720326View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-d7c139dc01453f61eb99View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4l-9000000000-7d7844b4813b038012daView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0udi-9100000000-16029dbe79f139ab904aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-01ox-9000000000-3fe0c184a891364773a8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-a638e26fe3c3f48563c2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004l-9000000000-d3fd9e9abd911eb0f88eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9000000000-ca218dca3a5d86196d81View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-b40367f5ca8d11288fbeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-ba29a0647084e32d8704View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0abc-9000000000-4cd85379d414c16f95c0View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-01ox-9000000000-3706109441e6d3017895View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
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  • van der Werf, M. J., Overkamp, K. M., Muilwijk, B., Coulier, L., Hankemeier, T. (2007). "Microbial metabolomics: toward a platform with full metabolome coverage." Anal Biochem 370:17-25. Pubmed: 17765195
  • Winder, C. L., Dunn, W. B., Schuler, S., Broadhurst, D., Jarvis, R., Stephens, G. M., Goodacre, R. (2008). "Global metabolic profiling of Escherichia coli cultures: an evaluation of methods for quenching and extraction of intracellular metabolites." Anal Chem 80:2939-2948. Pubmed: 18331064
  • Yaqoob M, Nabi A: Flow injection chemiluminescent assays for glycerol and triglycerides using a co-immobilized enzyme reactor. Luminescence. 2003 Mar-Apr;18(2):67-71. Pubmed: 12687625
Synthesis Reference: Yang, Yifang. Purification of glycerol. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2007), 3pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
External Links:
Pubchem Compound ID753
Kegg IDC00116
ChemSpider ID733
Ligand ExpoGOL


General function:
Involved in glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase activity
Specific function:
Glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase hydrolyzes deacylated phospholipids to G3P and the corresponding alcohols
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
42 kDa
A glycerophosphodiester + H(2)O = an alcohol + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor
Specific function:
Key enzyme in the regulation of glycerol uptake and metabolism
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
56 kDa
ATP + glycerol = ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate.
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol phosphorylation
Specific function:
Myo-inositol phosphate + H(2)O = myo-inositol + phosphate
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
29.5 kDa
Myo-inositol phosphate + H(2)O = myo-inositol + phosphate.
General function:
Involved in acid phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates several organic phosphomonoesters and catalyzes the transfer of low-energy phosphate groups from phosphomonoesters to hydroxyl groups of various organic compounds. Preferentially acts on aryl phosphoesters. Might function as a broad-spectrum dephosphorylating enzyme able to scavenge both 3'- and 5'-nucleotides and also additional organic phosphomonoesters
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
38 kDa
A phosphate monoester + H(2)O = an alcohol + phosphate.
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Has high formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the presence of glutathione and catalyzes the oxidation of normal alcohols in a reaction that is not GSH-dependent. In addition, hemithiolacetals other than those formed from GSH, including omega-thiol fatty acids, also are substrates
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
39.2 kDa
S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione + NAD(P)(+) = S-formylglutathione + NAD(P)H.
An alcohol + NAD(+) = an aldehyde or ketone + NADH.
General function:
Involved in phosphotransferase activity, for other substituted phosphate groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible phosphatidyl group transfer from one phosphatidylglycerol molecule to another to form cardiolipin (CL) (diphosphatidylglycerol) and glycerol. Affects resistance to the gyrase inhibitor novobiocin
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
54.6 kDa
2 Phosphatidylglycerol = diphosphatidylglycerol + glycerol.
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes, in vitro, the phosphatidyl group transfer from one phosphatidylglycerol molecule to another to form cardiolipin (CL) (diphosphatidylglycerol) and glycerol. Can also catalyze phosphatidyl group transfer to water to form phosphatidate. Catalyzes little, if any, cardiolipin synthesis in vivo, even when the expression level is very high
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
46.5 kDa
2 Phosphatidylglycerol = diphosphatidylglycerol + glycerol.


General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Transporter of glycerol across the cytoplasmic membrane, with limited permeability to water and small uncharged compounds such as polyols
Gene Name:
Locus Tag:
Molecular weight:
28.9 kDa