Record Information
Version 1.0
Update Date 1/22/2018 12:54:54 PM
Metabolite IDPAMDB000179
Name: Hydroxyproline
Description:Hydroxyproline is a common proteinogenic amino acid. Hydroxyproline differs from proline by the presence of a hydroxyl (OH) group attached to the C (gamma) atom. Hydroxyproline differs from proline by the presence of a hydroxyl (OH) group attached to the C (gamma) atom. It is produced by hydroxylation of the amino acid proline. It is not directly coded for by DNA, however, and is hydroxylated after protein synthesis. (Wikipedia)
  • (2S,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylate
  • (2S,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
  • (2S,4R)-4-hydroxypyrrolidine-2-carboxylate
  • (2S,4R)-4-hydroxypyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
  • (4R)-4-hydroxy-L-proline
  • 4-Hydroxy-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylate
  • 4-Hydroxy-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid
  • 4-Hydroxy-L-proline
  • 4-Hydroxyproline
  • 4-L-Hydroxyproline
  • Delta-Hydroxyproline
  • Hydroxiproline
  • Hydroxy-L-proline
  • Hydroxy-proline
  • Hydroxyproline
  • L-4-Hydroxyproline
  • L-Hydroxyproline
  • L-Threo-4-hydroxyproline
  • LS-hydroxyproline
  • Oxaceprol
  • Trans-4-Hydroxy-L-proline
  • Trans-4-Hydroxyproline
  • Trans-hydroxyproline
  • Trans-L-hydroxyproline
  • δ-Hydroxyproline
Chemical Formula: C5H9NO3
Average Molecular Weight: 131.1299
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 131.058243159
CAS number: 51-35-4
IUPAC Name:(2S,4R)-4-hydroxypyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name: hypro
Chemical Taxonomy
Taxonomy DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
Kingdom Organic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
Class Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent L-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Secondary amine
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular Framework Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physical Properties
State: Solid
Melting point: 274-275 °C
Experimental Properties:
Water Solubility:361 mg/mL at 25 oC [MERCK INDEX (1996)]PhysProp
LogP:-3.17 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)]PhysProp
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility492.0 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.64ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.62ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area69.56 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity29.38 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability12.29 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations: Cytoplasm
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-000x-0950000000-5b1c397e26b28e872d20View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-000x-0950000000-c46b5bba0f41001e3c18View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-9530000000-00db00b15ab5341d7d64View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0a4i-1900000000-c0a869abe2f1e9f8c08eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-001l-1960000000-abcd0377696d2b52d815View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0019-9700000000-ea3ed008938a57d1263cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014r-9000000000-0b76109525f362b600a0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014l-9000000000-477e41e40831316e68acView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0019-9300000000-7228a10f32d447b58ee0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-11800ca52c6e911f8313View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
  • Akalin FA, Bozkurt FY, Sengun D, Renda N, Kalfa Z, Eratalay K, Velidedeoglu E: Hydroxyproline and total protein levels in gingiva from patients treated with phenytoin and cyclosporine-A. J Nihon Univ Sch Dent. 1996 Mar;38(1):21-30. Pubmed: 8648408
  • Akalin FA, Sengun D, Eratalay K, Renda N, Caglayan G: Hydroxyproline and total protein levels in gingiva and gingival crevicular fluid in patients with juvenile, rapidly progressive, and adult periodontitis. J Periodontol. 1993 May;64(5):323-9. Pubmed: 8515361
  • Akalin FA, Sengun D, Renda N, Eratalay K, Caglayan G: Hydroxyproline and total protein levels in gingiva and gingival crevicular fluid in periodontally healthy human subjects. J Nihon Univ Sch Dent. 1992 Sep;34(3):172-7. Pubmed: 1287145
  • Baldwin JE, Pritchard GJ, Williamson DS: The synthesis of 4-arylsulfanyl-substituted kainoid analogues from trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2000 Sep 4;10(17):1927-9. Pubmed: 10987419
  • Bellon G, Berg R, Chastang F, Malgras A, Borel JP: Separation and evaluation of the cis and trans isomers of hydroxyprolines: effect of hydrolysis on the epimerization. Anal Biochem. 1984 Feb;137(1):151-5. Pubmed: 6731795
  • Bienkowski RS: A criterion to determine whether cis-4-hydroxyproline is produced in animal tissues. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1984 Mar;229(2):455-8. Pubmed: 6703705
  • Cynober LA: Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Nutrition. 2002 Sep;18(9):761-6. Pubmed: 12297216
  • Diaz S, Reyes MV, Zepeda A, Gonzalez GB, Lopez JM, Campino C, Croxatto HB: Norplant((R)) implants and progesterone vaginal rings do not affect maternal bone turnover and density during lactation and after weaning. Hum Reprod. 1999 Oct;14(10):2499-505. Pubmed: 10527977
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  • Kanehisa, M., Goto, S., Sato, Y., Furumichi, M., Tanabe, M. (2012). "KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets." Nucleic Acids Res 40:D109-D114. Pubmed: 22080510
  • Kelleher PC: Urinary excretion of hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine and hydroxylysine glycosides by patients with Paget's disease of bone and carcinoma with metastases in bone. Clin Chim Acta. 1979 Mar 15;92(3):373-9. Pubmed: 436278
  • Kofoed J, Darbre T, Reymond JL: Dual mechanism of zinc-proline catalyzed aldol reactions in water. Chem Commun (Camb). 2006 Apr 14;(14):1482-4. Epub 2006 Mar 2. Pubmed: 16575434
  • Koike K, Li Y, Seo M, Sakurada I, Tezuka K, Uchikura K: Free 4-hydroxyproline content in serum of bedridden aged people is elevated due to fracture. Biol Pharm Bull. 2000 Jan;23(1):101-3. Pubmed: 10706420
  • Kondo A, Ishikawa O, Okada K, Miyachi Y, Abe S, Kuboki Y: Measurement of histidinohydroxylysinonorleucine and hydroxyproline in skin collagen by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography after 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate labeling. Anal Biochem. 1997 Oct 15;252(2):255-9. Pubmed: 9344411
  • Kuttan R, Radhakrishnan AN: Studies on bound trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline in sandal (Santalum album L.). Biochem J. 1970 Oct;119(4):651-7. Pubmed: 5493503
  • Lee HS, Shun CT, Chiou LL, Chen CH, Huang GT, Sheu JC: Hydroxyproline content of needle biopsies as an objective measure of liver fibrosis: Emphasis on sampling variability. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Jul;20(7):1109-14. Pubmed: 15955222
  • Lee KW, Kim SJ, Park JB, Lee KJ: Relationship between depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) and urinary hydroxyproline and proline concentrations in hospital workers. J Prev Med Public Health. 2011 Jan;44(1):9-13. doi: 10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.1.9. Pubmed: 21483218
  • Lindblad WJ, Diegelmann RF: Quantitation of hydroxyproline isomers in acid hydrolysates by high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Biochem. 1984 May 1;138(2):390-5. Pubmed: 6742416
  • Matsuda Y, Matsumoto K, Yamada A, Ichida T, Asakura H, Komoriya Y, Nishiyama E, Nakamura T: Preventive and therapeutic effects in rats of hepatocyte growth factor infusion on liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1997 Jul;26(1):81-9. Pubmed: 9214455
  • Miskolzie M, Gera L, Stewart JM, Kotovych G: The importance of the N-terminal beta-turn in bradykinin antagonists. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2000 Oct;18(2):249-60. Pubmed: 11089646
  • Nogueira Ade C, Vale RG, Gomes AL, Dantas EH: The effect of muscle actions on the level of connective tissue damage. Res Sports Med. 2011 Oct;19(4):259-70. doi: 10.1080/15438627.2011.608046. Pubmed: 21988268
  • Pickersgill IF, Rapoport H: Preparation of functionalized, conformationally constrained DTPA analogues from L- or D-serine and trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline. Hydroxymethyl substituents on the central acetic acid and on the backbone. J Org Chem. 2000 Jun 30;65(13):4048-57. Pubmed: 10866623
  • Seibel MJ, Woitge HW: Basic principles and clinical applications of biochemical markers of bone metabolism: biochemical and technical aspects. J Clin Densitom. 1999 Fall;2(3):299-321. Pubmed: 10548826
  • Shibasaki T, Mori H, Ozaki A: Enzymatic production of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline by regio- and stereospecific hydroxylation of L-proline. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000 Apr;64(4):746-50. Pubmed: 10830487
  • Song IK, Kang YK: Conformational preference and cis-trans isomerization of 4(R)-substituted proline residues. J Phys Chem B. 2006 Feb 2;110(4):1915-27. Pubmed: 16471763
  • Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
Synthesis Reference: Adams, Elijah; Goldstone, Alfred. Hydroxyproline metabolism. II. Enzymic preparation and properties of D1-pyrroline-3-hydroxy-5-carboxylic acid. Journal of Biological Chemistry (1960), 235 3492-8.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
External Links:
Pubchem Compound ID5810
Kegg IDC01157
ChemSpider ID5605
Ligand ExpoHYP